Historical Heathenry & the Seven-day "Week."
Saxon Heathens did not have a "seven day week." Germanic Heathens did not have a seven day week. Yes, modern names like Wednesday "Wodensdaeg" (Odin's Day), Thor's Day (Thursday), Friday for Frigg's day (not Freyja's day, by the way), and Tuesday for Tiw's day (Norse: Tyr), did come from Anglo-Saxon England, which was christianized in 597 through Augustine. These were names given to the days of the week in Anglo-Saxon England that caught on elsewhere. But before christianization, our Germanic Ancestors did not have folklore about a One True God creating the world in six days, and resting on the seventh, as was common not just in the Bible, but in Babylonian and Sumerian creation and flood stories even older than the Bible. The names for these days in the Bible were: Day One, second day, third day, fourth day, fifth day, sixth day, and "Shabbat." Shabbat is a Hebrew noun meaning "rest." Now you will ask: "If our Germanic Ancestors did not have a seven day week, how did they measure time?" Germanic Heathens saw time via the moon. Germanic Heathens had days of the moon. A new moon would "wax" (or grow) until Full Moon, and then "wane" (or decline) until the new moon. I will prove this from historical sources. I can give MANY examples, but I will give four: Tacitus (97 AD), Bede's De Temporum Ratione 725 AD, the Old Saxon Poem: Heliand (circa 830 AD) which describes how the Heathen Saxons saw their "days of the moon," and show that the Norse Heathens were the same way by quoting the Poetic Edda. Please note: Heathens looked at the moon (and sun) daily. They were so good at visual time keeping with the moon, you could put a historical Heathen in a time machine blind-folded, then remove the blind-fold, and ask the Heathen to tell you what moon of the year it was and what day of the moon it was, just by looking at the sky, and the Heathen would nail it. Our modern brain cannot do this because we use wall calendars, or our cell phones, to tell what day of the year it is on a fixed calendar. Excerpt from the Old Saxon Heliand, translation mine, with the Old Saxon Heliand in Runes on top, and in Red modern English below, commentary in Blue. This picture is from my published book on Saxon Heathenry:
In Vafþrúðnismál, a poem in the Poetic Edda, we see "waxing and waning of the moon." We also see it stated that the moon and the sun were created to tell time for men: Othin spoke:
 "Next answer me well, if your wisdom avails, And you know well, Vafthruthnir, now: Whence came the moon, o'er the world of men, That fares, and the flaming sun?"
 "Mundilferi is he who created the moon, and fathered the flaming sun; The round of the sky each day they run, to tell the time for men."
 "Third answer me well, | if wise thou art called,If thou knowest it, Vafthruthnir, now:Whence came the day, o'er mankind that fares, Or night with the waning moon?"
 "The father of day is Delling called, And the night was begotten by Nor; Full moon and New Moon by the gods were fashioned, To tell the time for men." Excerpt from Tacitus “Germania” (First Century AD) Translation by Robert Sass from Latin
“… they assemble on fixed days, either just before the new moon or just after the full moon. This they reckon to be the most auspicious starting-point for transacting business. Indeed, they do not reckon time by days, as we do, but by nights (i.e., their calendar was lunar). All their decisions, all their agreements, are made in this way: night is seen as ushering in the day…” Excerpt from Bede “de Temporum Ratione” (725 AD) Translation by Robert Sass from Latin "The moon by which they began their winter season was called “Winterfylleth”, a name compounded of the terms for winter and full moon, because from the full moon of that moon winter was thought to begin." PS- Winter Began on the full moon of the 10th moon of the year, Haust-manuthr or "Harvest Moon.". This holiday was called "Winter Nights" or "veturnóttum" to the Norse. Three Full Moons later was mid-winter or Yule, which was on the Full Moon of Yulir-Manuthr, or "Yule Moon" to the Norse. (Yes, Yule was not just a three day blot in Heathen times, but it was also a complete moon of waning and waxing.) Three full moons after Yule Full Moon, was the Full Moon of Goje Manuthr, when the start of summer, Acre-Blot, Sigurblot, or summer-fylleth, the start of the Norse Summer. Per Bede and Tacitus, I conclude the Saxons held their holy days on full moons. Bede spells it out specifically with “Winter Full Moon” as the start of the winter season. However, per Tacitus, the Saxons probably held their Things just before new moons or just after full moons.
Three Germanic Heathen Calendars survived from Antiquity. Bede wrote the Anglish Calendar in "De Temporum Ratione" in 725 AD. Einhard wrote the Frankish Heathen Calendar circa 830 AD in chapter 29 of his Vita Karolini Magni. And the Iceland Althing circa 930 AD recorded the Norse Heathen calendar. Please note, in Germanic languages, the word "moon" and "month" are related. A "month" was a "cycle of the moon waxing and waning." The Norse word for this is "manuthr", or in modern English, "month." For your reference, I will include three historical Calendars to survive: The Iceland Althing Calendar, PRE-CHRISTIANIZATION:
Here is the historical Frankish Heathen Calendar, recorded by Einhard in Vita Karolini Magni, chapter 29, translation mine: "He (Charlemagne) began a grammar of his native language. He gave the moons (months) names in his own tongue, in place of the Latin and barbarous names by which they were formerly known among the Franks. He likewise designated the winds by twelve appropriate names; there were hardly more than four distinctive ones in use before. He called January, Wintarmanoth; February, Hornung; March, Lentzinmanoth; April, Ostarmanoth; May, Winnemanoth; June, Brachmanoth; July, Heuvimanoth; August, Aranmanoth; September, Witumanoth; October, Windumemanoth; November, Herbistmanoth; December, Heilagmanoth." Excerpt from Bede “de Temporum Ratione” (725 AD) Translation by Robert Sass from Latin
“The Ancient Angle (English) peoples, for it does not seem proper for me to explain the yearly practice of other nations, and to keep quiet concerning my own, reckoned their months by the moon, just as they were named from the moon in Hebrew and Greek. Therefore, they called the moon “mona”, the month was called “monath”. The first moon, which the Romans call “January”, is with them Giuli (Yule). Then follow February, Solmonath, March, Hredmonath, April, Eosturmonath, May, Thrimilki, June, Liða, July, Liða, August, Weodmonath, September, Halegmonath, October, Winterfylleth, November, Blotmonath, December, Giuli, same as for January. They began the year with December 25, the day we now celebrate as Christ Mass (Christmas); and the very night we attend Mass they designated by the Heathen term “modraniht”, that is, the Mothers’ night, a name named, I suspect, because of the ceremonies which they performed while seeing this night through. The peoples who welcomed the year in this also assigned three moons to each season of the year. When however, an embolism occurred, that is, a year of thirteen lunar moons, they added the intercalated moon to the summer, so that in the case three moons in succession were called “Liða.” Such a year was known as “Thri-Liða”, having four moons of summer and three of each of the other seasons. The division of the year though was into two seasons: Winter and Summer. Summer comprising six (or seven) moons when days were longer than nights, and winter six moons when nights were longer than days. Thus, the moon by which they began their winter season was called “Winterfylleth”, a name compounded of the terms for winter and full moon, because from the full moon of that moon winter was thought to begin. It would not be strange to our endeavor if I propose to interpret the names of their other moons. The moons called “Giuli” (Yule) receive their name from the sun’s change to a longer day, since the first precedes, and the second follows. Solmonath may be rendered “moon of cakes”. Cakes being offered in this moon to their Gods. Hredmonath was named from their goddess Hreða, to whom they sacrificed in this moon. Eosturmonath, which is now interpreted as “paschal moon” had its name from their Goddess Easter (Eostre), to whom they held feasts in this moon, thus in naming the Paschal season after her, they designate the joys of a new celebration by the customary term applied to an ancient rite. Thrimilki was so called because in that moon milking was performed three times in one day, such being then the richness of Britain, or instead Germany, from which the Angle (English) people entered Britain. Liða means “delightful”, and at this time, the seas are navigated. Weodmonath is the moon of weeds, since then the weeds are plentiful. Halegmonath is the moon of holy rites. Winterfylleth is to say, “winter full moon.” Blotmonath is the moon of sacrifices, because in that moon they consecrated to their gods the animals that they were about to kill.” (Bede De Temporum Ratione, chapter 15) Please join us on the Facebook Group "Saxon Heathenry"